Atrial Fibrillation
June 2017 Issue
 
 
 

Nearly every major medical breakthrough over the past 50 years can be attributed to new discoveries that were made possible through meticulous biomedical research. Many diseases and conditions that previously took a heavy toll on patients in terms of both morbidity and mortality are now either treatable or preventable thanks in large part to painstaking research that expanded the frontiers of scientific knowledge and moved the most promising basic research developments into tangible health benefits through human clinical trails. Ongoing research is also the key that will open the door to additional major medical advances and breakthroughs in the future.

Our staff at Medifocus is committed to keeping our subscribers to the Medifocus Digest Alert on Atrial Fibrillation abreast of the latest new research developments that have recently been published in the medical literature for this condition. In this issue of the Digest Alert, you will find a focused list of hand-picked journal article references that represent the latest advances in basic and clinical research for Atrial Fibrillation. These articles represent the current state-of-the-art of the research that will hopefully lead to additional major advances and breakthroughs in the clinical management of Atrial Fibrillation. You can access the summaries of each article referenced below by simply clicking on the article Title.

We will continue to update you with the latest scientific and clinical developments through the Medifocus Digest Alert on Atrial Fibrillation every 3 months. Thank you for your ongoing subscription to this publication.

Sincerely,
Elliot Jacob, Ph.D.
Vice-President - Content
Medifocus.com, Inc.



1:Treatment of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.
Authors:Verma A, Kalman JM, Callans DJ
Institution:From Department of Medicine and Surgery, Division of Cardiology, Southlake Regional Health Centre, University of Toronto, Canada (A.V.); Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia (J.M.K.); and Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (D.J.C.). Regional Health Centre, University of Toronto, Canada (A.V.); Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia (J.M.K.); and Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (D.J.C.). Regional Health Centre, University of Toronto, Canada (A.V.); Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia (J.M.K.); and Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (D.J.C.). david.callans@uphs.upenn.edu.
Journal:Circulation. 2017 Apr 18;135(16):1547-1563. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.026054.

2:Is Atrial Fibrillation a Preventable Disease?
Authors:Du X, Dong J, Ma C
Institution:Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. address: chshma@vip.sina.com.
Journal:J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017 Apr 18;69(15):1968-1982. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.02.020.

3:Uninterrupted Dabigatran versus Warfarin for Ablation in Atrial Fibrillation.
Authors:Calkins H, Willems S, Gerstenfeld EP, Verma A, Schilling R, Hohnloser SH, Okumura K, Serota H, Nordaby M, Guiver K, Biss B, Brouwer MA, Grimaldi M
Institution:From Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore (H.C.); Department of Cardiology-Electrophysiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg (S.W.), Department of Cardiology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.H.H.), and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Ingelheim am Rhein (M.N.) - all in Germany; Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (E.P.G.); University of Toronto, Toronto (A.V.); Barts Heart Centre, Saint Bartholomew's Hospital, London (R.S.), and Biometrics and Data Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell (K.G.) - both in the United Kingdom; Division of Cardiology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Kumamoto, Japan (K.O.); St. Louis Heart and Vascular, St. Louis (H.S.); Department of Clinical Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim Regional Center Vienna, Vienna (B.B.); Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M.A.B.); and Cardiology Department, Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy (M.G.). Cardiology-Electrophysiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg (S.W.), Department of Cardiology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.H.H.), and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Ingelheim am Rhein (M.N.) - all in Germany; Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (E.P.G.); University of Toronto, Toronto (A.V.); Barts Heart Centre, Saint Bartholomew's Hospital, London (R.S.), and Biometrics and Data Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell (K.G.) - both in the United Kingdom; Division of Cardiology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Kumamoto, Japan (K.O.); St. Louis Heart and Vascular, St. Louis (H.S.); Department of Clinical Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim Regional Center Vienna, Vienna (B.B.); Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M.A.B.); and Cardiology Department, Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy (M.G.). Cardiology-Electrophysiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg (S.W.), Department of Cardiology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.H.H.), and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Ingelheim am Rhein (M.N.) - all in Germany; Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (E.P.G.); University of Toronto, Toronto (A.V.); Barts Heart Centre, Saint Bartholomew's Hospital, London (R.S.), and Biometrics and Data Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell (K.G.) - both in the United Kingdom; Division of Cardiology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Kumamoto, Japan (K.O.); St. Louis Heart and Vascular, St. Louis (H.S.); Department of Clinical Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim Regional Center Vienna, Vienna (B.B.); Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M.A.B.); and Cardiology Department, Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy (M.G.). Cardiology-Electrophysiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg (S.W.), Department of Cardiology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.H.H.), and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Ingelheim am Rhein (M.N.) - all in Germany; Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (E.P.G.); University of Toronto, Toronto (A.V.); Barts Heart Centre, Saint Bartholomew's Hospital, London (R.S.), and Biometrics and Data Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell (K.G.) - both in the United Kingdom; Division of Cardiology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Kumamoto, Japan (K.O.); St. Louis Heart and Vascular, St. Louis (H.S.); Department of Clinical Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim Regional Center Vienna, Vienna (B.B.); Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M.A.B.); and Cardiology Department, Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy (M.G.). Cardiology-Electrophysiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg (S.W.), Department of Cardiology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.H.H.), and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Ingelheim am Rhein (M.N.) - all in Germany; Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (E.P.G.); University of Toronto, Toronto (A.V.); Barts Heart Centre, Saint Bartholomew's Hospital, London (R.S.), and Biometrics and Data Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell (K.G.) - both in the United Kingdom; Division of Cardiology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Kumamoto, Japan (K.O.); St. Louis Heart and Vascular, St. Louis (H.S.); Department of Clinical Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim Regional Center Vienna, Vienna (B.B.); Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M.A.B.); and Cardiology Department, Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy (M.G.). Cardiology-Electrophysiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg (S.W.), Department of Cardiology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.H.H.), and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Ingelheim am Rhein (M.N.) - all in Germany; Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (E.P.G.); University of Toronto, Toronto (A.V.); Barts Heart Centre, Saint Bartholomew's Hospital, London (R.S.), and Biometrics and Data Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell (K.G.) - both in the United Kingdom; Division of Cardiology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Kumamoto, Japan (K.O.); St. Louis Heart and Vascular, St. Louis (H.S.); Department of Clinical Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim Regional Center Vienna, Vienna (B.B.); Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M.A.B.); and Cardiology Department, Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy (M.G.). Cardiology-Electrophysiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg (S.W.), Department of Cardiology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.H.H.), and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Ingelheim am Rhein (M.N.) - all in Germany; Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (E.P.G.); University of Toronto, Toronto (A.V.); Barts Heart Centre, Saint Bartholomew's Hospital, London (R.S.), and Biometrics and Data Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell (K.G.) - both in the United Kingdom; Division of Cardiology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Kumamoto, Japan (K.O.); St. Louis Heart and Vascular, St. Louis (H.S.); Department of Clinical Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim Regional Center Vienna, Vienna (B.B.); Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M.A.B.); and Cardiology Department, Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy (M.G.). Cardiology-Electrophysiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg (S.W.), Department of Cardiology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.H.H.), and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Ingelheim am Rhein (M.N.) - all in Germany; Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (E.P.G.); University of Toronto, Toronto (A.V.); Barts Heart Centre, Saint Bartholomew's Hospital, London (R.S.), and Biometrics and Data Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell (K.G.) - both in the United Kingdom; Division of Cardiology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Kumamoto, Japan (K.O.); St. Louis Heart and Vascular, St. Louis (H.S.); Department of Clinical Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim Regional Center Vienna, Vienna (B.B.); Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M.A.B.); and Cardiology Department, Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy (M.G.). Cardiology-Electrophysiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg (S.W.), Department of Cardiology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.H.H.), and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Ingelheim am Rhein (M.N.) - all in Germany; Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (E.P.G.); University of Toronto, Toronto (A.V.); Barts Heart Centre, Saint Bartholomew's Hospital, London (R.S.), and Biometrics and Data Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell (K.G.) - both in the United Kingdom; Division of Cardiology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Kumamoto, Japan (K.O.); St. Louis Heart and Vascular, St. Louis (H.S.); Department of Clinical Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim Regional Center Vienna, Vienna (B.B.); Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M.A.B.); and Cardiology Department, Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy (M.G.). Cardiology-Electrophysiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg (S.W.), Department of Cardiology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.H.H.), and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Ingelheim am Rhein (M.N.) - all in Germany; Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (E.P.G.); University of Toronto, Toronto (A.V.); Barts Heart Centre, Saint Bartholomew's Hospital, London (R.S.), and Biometrics and Data Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell (K.G.) - both in the United Kingdom; Division of Cardiology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Kumamoto, Japan (K.O.); St. Louis Heart and Vascular, St. Louis (H.S.); Department of Clinical Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim Regional Center Vienna, Vienna (B.B.); Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M.A.B.); and Cardiology Department, Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy (M.G.). Cardiology-Electrophysiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg (S.W.), Department of Cardiology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.H.H.), and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Ingelheim am Rhein (M.N.) - all in Germany; Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (E.P.G.); University of Toronto, Toronto (A.V.); Barts Heart Centre, Saint Bartholomew's Hospital, London (R.S.), and Biometrics and Data Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell (K.G.) - both in the United Kingdom; Division of Cardiology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Kumamoto, Japan (K.O.); St. Louis Heart and Vascular, St. Louis (H.S.); Department of Clinical Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim Regional Center Vienna, Vienna (B.B.); Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M.A.B.); and Cardiology Department, Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy (M.G.). Cardiology-Electrophysiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg (S.W.), Department of Cardiology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.H.H.), and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Ingelheim am Rhein (M.N.) - all in Germany; Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (E.P.G.); University of Toronto, Toronto (A.V.); Barts Heart Centre, Saint Bartholomew's Hospital, London (R.S.), and Biometrics and Data Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell (K.G.) - both in the United Kingdom; Division of Cardiology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Kumamoto, Japan (K.O.); St. Louis Heart and Vascular, St. Louis (H.S.); Department of Clinical Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim Regional Center Vienna, Vienna (B.B.); Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M.A.B.); and Cardiology Department, Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy (M.G.). Cardiology-Electrophysiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg (S.W.), Department of Cardiology, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt (S.H.H.), and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Ingelheim am Rhein (M.N.) - all in Germany; Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (E.P.G.); University of Toronto, Toronto (A.V.); Barts Heart Centre, Saint Bartholomew's Hospital, London (R.S.), and Biometrics and Data Sciences Department, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bracknell (K.G.) - both in the United Kingdom; Division of Cardiology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital Cardiovascular Center, Kumamoto, Japan (K.O.); St. Louis Heart and Vascular, St. Louis (H.S.); Department of Clinical Operations, Boehringer Ingelheim Regional Center Vienna, Vienna (B.B.); Department of Cardiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands (M.A.B.); and Cardiology Department, Miulli Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Italy (M.G.).
Journal:N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 27;376(17):1627-1636. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1701005. Epub 2017 Mar 19.

4:Multimorbidity and the risk of hospitalization and death in atrial fibrillation: A population-based study.
Authors:Chamberlain AM, Alonso A, Gersh BJ, Manemann SM, Killian JM, Weston SA, Byrne M, Roger VL
Institution:Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address: chamberlain.alanna@mayo.edu. Atlanta, GA. Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
Journal:Am Heart J. 2017 Mar;185:74-84. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.11.008. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

5:Cardioversion and subsequent quality of life and natural history of atrial fibrillation.
Authors:Pokorney SD, Kim S, Thomas L, Fonarow GC, Kowey PR, Gersh BJ, Mahaffey KW, Peterson ED, Piccini JP
Institution:Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC. Electronic address: sean.pokorney@duke.edu. sunghee.kim@dm.duke.edu. laine.thomas@dm.duke.edu. GFonarow@mednet.ucla.edu. koweyp@mlhs.org. Gersh.Bernard@mayo.edu. Electronic address: kenneth.mahaffey@stanford.edu. Durham, NC. Electronic address: eric.peterson@dm.duke.edu. Durham, NC. Electronic address: jonathan.piccini@dm.duke.edu.
Journal:Am Heart J. 2017 Mar;185:59-66. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2016.10.018. Epub 2016 Oct 29.

6:Atrial Fibrillation.
Authors:Zimetbaum P
Journal:Ann Intern Med. 2017 Mar 7;166(5):ITC33-ITC48. doi: 10.7326/AITC201703070.

7:Adjunctive ablation strategies improve the efficacy of pulmonary vein isolation in non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors:Afzal MR, Samanta A, Chatta J, Ansari B, Atherton S, Sabzwari S, Turagam M, Lakkireddy D, Houmsse M
Institution:a Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Electrophysiology Section, Ross Heart Hospital , The Wexner Medical Center at the Ohio State University Medical Center , Columbus , OH , USA. Kansas City , KS , USA. Kansas City , KS , USA. Kansas City , KS , USA. Kansas City , KS , USA. Kansas City , KS , USA. Kansas City , KS , USA. Kansas City , KS , USA. Electrophysiology Section, Ross Heart Hospital , The Wexner Medical Center at the Ohio State University Medical Center , Columbus , OH , USA.
Journal:Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2017 Mar;15(3):227-235. doi: 10.1080/14779072.2017.1294064. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

8:Rivaroxaban Versus Dabigatran or Warfarin in Real-World Studies of Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Authors:Bai Y, Deng H, Shantsila A, Lip GY
Institution:From the University of Birmingham Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, City Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom (Y.B., H.D., A.S., G.Y.H.L.); Cardiovascular Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, China (Y.B.); Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Science, Guangzhou, China (H.D.); and Aalborg Thrombosis Research Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Denmark (G.Y.H.L.). Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom (Y.B., H.D., A.S., G.Y.H.L.); Cardiovascular Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, China (Y.B.); Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Science, Guangzhou, China (H.D.); and Aalborg Thrombosis Research Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Denmark (G.Y.H.L.). Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom (Y.B., H.D., A.S., G.Y.H.L.); Cardiovascular Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, China (Y.B.); Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Science, Guangzhou, China (H.D.); and Aalborg Thrombosis Research Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Denmark (G.Y.H.L.). Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom (Y.B., H.D., A.S., G.Y.H.L.); Cardiovascular Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, China (Y.B.); Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Science, Guangzhou, China (H.D.); and Aalborg Thrombosis Research Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Denmark (G.Y.H.L.). g.y.h.lip@bham.ac.uk.
Journal:Stroke. 2017 Apr;48(4):970-976. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.016275. Epub 2017 Feb 17.

9:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and atrial fibrillation: An unknown relationship.
Authors:Goudis CA
Institution:Cardiology Department, Serres General Hospital, Serres, Greece. Electronic address: cgoudis@hotmail.com.
Journal:J Cardiol. 2017 May;69(5):699-705. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2016.12.013. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

10:Prediction of Early Recurrent Thromboembolic Event and Major Bleeding in Patients With Acute Stroke and Atrial Fibrillation by a Risk Stratification Schema: The ALESSA Score Study.
Authors:Paciaroni M, Agnelli G, Caso V, Tsivgoulis G, Furie KL, Tadi P, Becattini C, Falocci N, Zedde M, Abdul-Rahim AH, Lees KR, Alberti A, Venti M, Acciarresi M, D'Amore C, Mosconi MG, Cimini LA, Procopio A, Bovi P, Carletti M, Rigatelli A, Cappellari M, Putaala J, Tomppo L, Tatlisumak T, Bandini F, Marcheselli S, Pezzini A, Poli L, Padovani A, Masotti L, Vannucchi V, Sohn SI, Lorenzini G, Tassi R, Guideri F, Acampa M, Martini G, Ntaios G, Karagkiozi E, Athanasakis G, Makaritsis K, Vadikolias K, Liantinioti C, Chondrogianni M, Mumoli N, Consoli D, Galati F, Sacco S, Carolei A, Tiseo C, Corea F, Ageno W, Bellesini M, Colombo G, Silvestrelli G, Ciccone A, Scoditti U, Denti L, Mancuso M, Maccarrone M, Orlandi G, Giannini N, Gialdini G, Tassinari T, De Lodovici ML, Bono G, Rueckert C, Baldi A, D'Anna S, Toni D, Letteri F, Giuntini M, Lotti EM, Flomin Y, Pieroni A, Kargiotis O, Karapanayiotides T, Monaco S, Baronello MM, Csiba L, Szabo L, Chiti A, Giorli E, Del Sette M, Imberti D, Zabzuni D, Doronin B, Volodina V, Michel P, Vanacker P, Barlinn K, Pallesen LP, Kepplinger J, Bodechtel U, Gerber J, Deleu D, Melikyan G, Ibrahim F, Akhtar N, Gourbali V, Yaghi S
Institution:From the Stroke Unit and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (V.G.). maurizio.paciaroni@unipg.it. Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (V.G.). Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (V.G.). Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (V.G.). Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (V.G.). Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (V.G.). Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (V.G.). Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (V.G.). Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (V.G.). Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (V.G.). Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (V.G.). Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (V.G.). Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens (V.G.). Perugia, Italy (M.P., G. Agnelli, V.C., C.B., N.F., A.A., M.V., M. Acciarresi, C.D., M.G.M., L.A.C., A. Procopio); Department of Neurology, Democritus University of Thrace, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece (G.T., K.V.); International Clinic Research Center, St Anne's University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic (G.T.); Second Department of Neurology, "Attikon" Hospital, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Greece (G.T., C.L., M. Chondrogianni); Division of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (K.L.F., P.T., S.Y.); Neurology Unit, Stroke Unit, Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy (M.Z.); Medical School and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, United Kingdom (A.H.A.-R., K.R.L.); Unita Semplice Dipartimentale (USD) Stroke Unit, DAI di Neuroscienze, AOUI Verona, Italy (P.B., M. Carletti, A.R., M. Cappellari); Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland (J.P., L.T., T. Tatlisumak); Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg and Department of Neurology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden (T. Tatlisumak); Department of Neurology, Ospedale San Paolo, Savona, Italy (F.B.); Neurologia d'urgenza e Stroke Unit, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano, Milano, Italy (S. Marcheselli); Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Neurology Unit, University of Brescia, Italy (A. Pezzini, L.P., A. Padovani); Internal Medicine, Santa Maria Nuova Hospital, Firenze, Italy (L.M., V. Vannucchi); Department of Neurology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea (S.-I.S.); Stroke Unit, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy (G.L.); SC Medicina e Chirurgia d'Accettazione e d'Urgenza, Pontedera o Volterra, Azienda USL Toscana Nord Ovest, Italy (R.T., F. Guideri, M. Acampa, G. Martini); Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece (G.N., E.K., G. Athanasakis, K.M.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Livorno, Italy (N.M.); Stroke Unit, Jazzolino Hospital, Vibo Valentia, Italy (D.C., F. Galati); Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Italy (S.S., A. Carolei, C.T.); UO Gravi Cerebrolesioni, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Foligno (F.C.); Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (W.A., M.B., G.C.); S.C. di Neurologia e S.S. di Stroke Unit, ASST di Mantova, Mantova, Italy (G.S., A. Ciccone); Stroke Unit, Neuroscience Department, University of Parma, Italy (U.S.); Stroke Unit, Dipartimento Geriatrico Riabilitativo, University of Parma, Italy (L.D.); Clinica Neurologica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria, Pisa, Italy (M. Mancuso, M. Maccarrone, G.O., N.G., G.G., A. Chiti); Neurologia, Ospedale Apuano, Massa Carrara, Italy (G.O., M.G.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure (Savona), Italy (T. Tassinari); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Insubria University, Varese, Italy (M.L. D.L., G.B.); Abteilung fur Neurologie, Oberschwabenklinik gGmbH, Ravensburg, Germany (C.R.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale di Portogruaro, Portogruaro (Venice), Italy (A.B., S.D.); Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy (D.T., F.L., A. Pieroni); U.O. Neurologia Stroke Unit, Ospedale SM delle Croci, Ravenna, Italy (E.M.L.); Stroke and Neurorehabilitation Unit, MC 'Universal Clinic 'Oberig' Kyiv, Ukraine (Y.F.); Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece (O.K.); 2nd Department of Neurology, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece (T.K.); Stroke Unit, Ospedale Civico, Palermo, Italy (S. Monaco, M.M.B.); Stroke Unit, University of Debrecen, Hungary (L.C., L.S.); Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Sant'Andrea Hospital, La Spezia, Italy (A. Chiti, E.G., M.D.S.); Divisione di Neurologia, Ospedale Galliera, Genoa, Italy (M.D.S.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ospedale Civile di Piacenza, Italy (D.I., D.Z.); City Hospital No. 1, Novosibirsk State Medical University, Russia (B.D., V. Volodina); Centre Cerebrovasculaire, Service de Neurologie, Departement des Neurosciences Cliniques Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (Switzerland) (P.M.); Department of Neurology, Born Bunge Institute, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium (P.V.); Department of Neurology, Dresden University Stroke Center, Germany (K.B., L.-P.P., J.K., U.B., J.G.); Neurology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar (D.D., G. Melikyan, F.I., N.A.); and Department of Neurology, Evangelismos Hospi
Journal:Stroke. 2017 Mar;48(3):726-732. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.015770. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

11:Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.
Authors:Genta PR, Drager LF, Lorenzi Filho G
Institution:Pulmonary Division, Heart Institute (InCor), Hospital das Clinicas, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Av Dr. Eneas de Carvalho Aguiar, 44, 8th Floor, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05403-000, Brasil. Clinicas, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Av Dr. Eneas de Carvalho Aguiar, 44, 8th Floor, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05403-000, Brasil. Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Av Dr. Eneas de Carvalho Aguiar, 44, 8th Floor, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05403-000, Brasil. Electronic address: geraldo.lorenzi@gmail.com.
Journal:Sleep Med Clin. 2017 Mar;12(1):99-105. doi: 10.1016/j.jsmc.2016.10.009. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

12:Atrial Fibrillation and Ventricular Arrhythmias: Sex Differences in Electrophysiology, Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, and Clinical Outcomes.
Authors:Gillis AM
Institution:From Department of Cardiac Sciences, University of Calgary and Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, Calgary, Canada. amgillis@ucalgary.ca.
Journal:Circulation. 2017 Feb 7;135(6):593-608. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.025312.

13:Management strategies for atrial fibrillation.
Authors:Patel PA, Ali N, Hogarth A, Tayebjee MH
Institution:1 Department of Cardiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK.
Journal:J R Soc Med. 2017 Jan;110(1):13-22. doi: 10.1177/0141076816677857.

14:The Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation.
Authors:Badhwar V, Rankin JS, Damiano RJ Jr, Gillinov AM, Bakaeen FG, Edgerton JR, Philpott JM, McCarthy PM, Bolling SF, Roberts HG, Thourani VH, Suri RM, Shemin RJ, Firestone S, Ad N
Institution:Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia. Electronic address: vinay.badhwar@wvumedicine.org. Virginia. Ohio. Ohio. Chicago, Illinois. Aventura, Aventura, Florida. Ohio. Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California. Virginia.
Journal:Ann Thorac Surg. 2017 Jan;103(1):329-341. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2016.10.076.

15:Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation with left atrial appendage closure.
Authors:Zack CJ, Fender EA, Holmes DR Jr
Institution:Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. holmes.david@mayo.edu.
Journal:Minerva Med. 2017 Jun;108(3):199-211. doi: 10.23736/S0026-4806.16.04981-8. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

16:Efficacy and safety of vitamin C for atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: A meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Authors:Hu X, Yuan L, Wang H, Li C, Cai J, Hu Y, Ma C
Institution:Department of Anaesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330006, People's Republic of China. University, Nanchang, 330006, People's Republic of China. University, Nanchang, 330006, People's Republic of China. University, Nanchang, 330006, People's Republic of China. University, Nanchang, 330006, People's Republic of China. University, Nanchang, 330006, People's Republic of China. University, Nanchang, 330006, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: changhua_ma411@sina.com.
Journal:Int J Surg. 2017 Jan;37:58-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2016.12.009. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

17:Direct oral anticoagulants and cardiovascular prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.
Authors:Marin F, Anguita-Sanchez M, Sanmartin M
Institution:a Department of Cardiology , Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, IMIB-Arrixaca , Murcia , Spain. Spain.
Journal:Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2017 Jan;18(1):67-77. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2016.1267140. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

18:Anticoagulation Use and Clinical Outcomes After Major Bleeding on Dabigatran or Warfarin in Atrial Fibrillation.
Authors:Hernandez I, Zhang Y, Brooks MM, Chin PK, Saba S
Institution:From the Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy (I.H.), Department of Health Policy and Management, Graduate School of Public Health (Y.Z.), and Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health (M.M.B.), University of Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand (P.K.L.C.); and Heart and Valvular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, PA (S.S.). Department of Health Policy and Management, Graduate School of Public Health (Y.Z.), and Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health (M.M.B.), University of Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand (P.K.L.C.); and Heart and Valvular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, PA (S.S.). ytzhang@pitt.edu. Department of Health Policy and Management, Graduate School of Public Health (Y.Z.), and Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health (M.M.B.), University of Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand (P.K.L.C.); and Heart and Valvular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, PA (S.S.). Department of Health Policy and Management, Graduate School of Public Health (Y.Z.), and Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health (M.M.B.), University of Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand (P.K.L.C.); and Heart and Valvular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, PA (S.S.). Department of Health Policy and Management, Graduate School of Public Health (Y.Z.), and Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health (M.M.B.), University of Pittsburgh, PA; Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand (P.K.L.C.); and Heart and Valvular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, PA (S.S.).
Journal:Stroke. 2017 Jan;48(1):159-166. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.015150. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

19:Vitamin K antagonists: relative strengths and weaknesses vs. direct oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation.
Authors:Zirlik A, Bode C
Institution:Department of Cardiology and Angiology I, University Heart Centre Freiburg, Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106, Freiburg, Germany. andreas.zirlik@universitaets-herzzentrum.de. Hugstetter Strasse 55, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.
Journal:J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2017 Apr;43(3):365-379. doi: 10.1007/s11239-016-1446-0.

20:How to Improve Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Benefit in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: Pulmonary Vein Isolation (and Beyond).
Authors:Gianni C, Di Biase L, Mohanty S, Gokoglan Y, Gunes MF, Al-Ahmad A, Burkhardt JD, Natale A
Institution:Texas Cardiac Arrhythmia Institute, St. David's Medical Center, 3000 North IH-35, Suite 700, Austin, TX 78705, USA; Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Suite 700, Austin, TX 78705, USA; Arrhythmia Services, Department of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA; Department of Cardiology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy. Suite 700, Austin, TX 78705, USA. Suite 700, Austin, TX 78705, USA. Suite 700, Austin, TX 78705, USA. Suite 700, Austin, TX 78705, USA. Suite 700, Austin, TX 78705, USA. Suite 700, Austin, TX 78705, USA; MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; Division of Cardiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia Services, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA; Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, CA, USA; Dell Medical School, University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA. Electronic address: dr.natale@gmail.com.
Journal:Heart Fail Clin. 2017 Jan;13(1):199-208. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2016.07.016.

21:Atrioventricular Node Ablation.
Authors:Gasparini M
Institution:EP and Pacing Unit, Humanitas Research Hospital, 20089 Rozzano-Milano, Italy. Electronic address: maurizio.gasparini@humanitas.it.
Journal:Heart Fail Clin. 2017 Jan;13(1):193-198. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2016.07.015.

22:Atrial Fibrillation During Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy.
Authors:Kloosterman M, Maass AH, Rienstra M, Van Gelder IC
Institution:Department of Cardiology, Thoraxcenter, University Medical Center Groningen, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: i.c.van.gelder@umcg.nl.
Journal:Heart Fail Clin. 2017 Jan;13(1):179-192. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2016.07.014.

23:Pulmonary Vein Isolation with the Cryoballoon Technique: Feasibility, Procedural Outcomes, and Adoption in the Real World: Data from One Shot Technologies TO Pulmonary Vein Isolation (1STOP) Project.
Authors:Padeletti L, Curnis A, Tondo C, Lunati M, Porcellini S, Verlato R, Sciarra L, Senatore G, Catanzariti D, Leoni L, Landolina M, Delise P, Iacopino S, Pieragnoli P, Arena G
Institution:University of Florence, Firenze, Italy. University of Milan, Milano, Italy.
Journal:Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2017 Jan;40(1):46-56. doi: 10.1111/pace.12975. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

24:Current and Emerging Uses of Insertable Cardiac Monitors: Evaluation of Syncope and Monitoring for Atrial Fibrillation.
Authors:Tomson TT, Passman R
Institution:From the Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL.
Journal:Cardiol Rev. 2017 Jan/Feb;25(1):22-29.

25:The factor xa inhibitor edoxaban for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation.
Authors:Minguet J, Sims HM, Smith KH, Bramlage P
Institution:a Institut fur Pharmakologie und Praventive Medizin , Mahlow , Germany.
Journal:Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Jan;10(1):5-15. doi: 10.1080/17512433.2016.1258301. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

26:Genetic Risk Prediction of Atrial Fibrillation.
Authors:Lubitz SA, Yin X, Lin HJ, Kolek M, Smith JG, Trompet S, Rienstra M, Rost NS, Teixeira PL, Almgren P, Anderson CD, Chen LY, Engstrom G, Ford I, Furie KL, Guo X, Larson MG, Lunetta KL, Macfarlane PW, Psaty BM, Soliman EZ, Sotoodehnia N, Stott DJ, Taylor KD, Weng LC, Yao J, Geelhoed B, Verweij N, Siland JE, Kathiresan S, Roselli C, Roden DM, van der Harst P, Darbar D, Jukema JW, Melander O, Rosand J, Rotter JI, Heckbert SR, Ellinor PT, Alonso A, Benjamin EJ
Institution:From Cardiac Arrhythmia Service (S.A.L., P.T.E.), Cardiovascular Research Center (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). slubitz@mgh.harvard.edu. (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatrics (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.I.R.) and Institute for Translational Genomics and Population Sciences, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute (H.J.L., X.G., K.D.T., J.Y., J.I.R.), Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA; Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (M.K., P.L.T., D.D.); Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden (J.G.S.); Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden (J.G.S.); Departments of Cardiology (S.T., J.W.J.) and Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands (M.R., B.G., N.V., J.E.S., P.v.d.H.); Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden (P.A., G.E., O.M.); Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (L.Y.C.); Robertson Center for Biostatistics (I.F.) and Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (P.W.M., D.J.S.), University of Glasgow, UK; Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence (K.L.F.); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Boston University, Boston, MA (M.G.L.); Department of Biostatistics (M.G.L., K.L.L.), Department of Epidemiology (E.J.B.), Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), and Preventive Medicine Section, Department of Medicine (E.J.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Departments of Medicine (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), Epidemiology (B.M.P., N.S., S.R.H.), and Health Services (B.M.P.), University of Washington, Seattle; Kaiser Permanente Health Research Institute, Kaiser Permanente, Seattle, WA (B.M.P., S.R.H.); Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center (EPICARE), Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (E.Z.S.); Department of Medicine and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (D.R.); University of Illinois, Chicago (D.D.); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (J.W.J.); Department of Internal Medicine, Skane University Hospital, Malmo, Sweden (O.M.); and Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (A.A.). (S.A.L., L.-C.W., S.K., P.T.E.), J. Philip Kistler Stroke Research Center, Department of Neurology (N.S.R., C.D.A., J.R.), and Center for Human Genetic Research (C.D.A., S.K., J.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (S.A.L., C.D.A., L.-C.W., S.K., C.R., J.R., P.T.E.); Boston University and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, MA (X.Y., M.G.L., K.L.L., E.J.B.); Department of Pediatr
Journal:Circulation. 2017 Apr 4;135(14):1311-1320. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.024143. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

27:Silent Atrial Fibrillation and Cryptogenic Strokes.
Authors:Dalen JE, Alpert JS
Institution:Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson. Electronic address: jdalenmd@gmail.com.
Journal:Am J Med. 2017 Mar;130(3):264-267. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.09.027. Epub 2016 Oct 15.

28:Combined aspirin and anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation.
Authors:So CH, Eckman MH
Institution:Division of General Internal Medicine and Center for Clinical Effectiveness, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, PO Box 670535, Cincinnati, OH, 45267-0535, USA. University of Cincinnati Medical Center, PO Box 670535, Cincinnati, OH, 45267-0535, USA. mark.eckman@uc.edu.
Journal:J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2017 Jan;43(1):7-17. doi: 10.1007/s11239-016-1425-5.

29:Clinical outcome of 2nd generation cryoballoon pulmonary vein isolation in patients over 75 years of age.
Authors:Pott A, Messemer M, Petscher K, Iturbe-Orbe M, Bothner C, Rottbauer W, Dahme T
Institution:Department of Medicine II, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany. Electronic address: tillman.dahme@uniklinik-ulm.de.
Journal:J Cardiol. 2017 Jan;69(1):24-29. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2016.07.020. Epub 2016 Sep 17.

30:Comparing Stroke and Bleeding with Rivaroxaban and Dabigatran in Atrial Fibrillation: Analysis of the US Medicare Part D Data.
Authors:Hernandez I, Zhang Y
Institution:Department of Pharmacy and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, 3501 Terrace St, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA. University of Pittsburgh, 130 De Soto Street, Crabtree Hall A664, Pittsburgh, PA, 15261, USA. ytzhang@pitt.edu.
Journal:Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2017 Feb;17(1):37-47. doi: 10.1007/s40256-016-0189-9.

31:Safely Addressing Patients with Atrial Fibrillation to Early Anticoagulation after Acute Stroke.
Authors:Canavero I, Cavallini A, Sacchi L, Quaglini S, Arno N, Perrone P, DeLodovici ML, Marcheselli S, Micieli G
Institution:Department of Emergency Neurology and Stroke Unit, National Neurological Institute "Casimiro Mondino" IRCCS, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address: isabellacanavero@gmail.com. Institute "Casimiro Mondino" IRCCS, Pavia, Italy. Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Institute "Casimiro Mondino" IRCCS, Pavia, Italy. Insubria University, Varese, Italy. Institute "Casimiro Mondino" IRCCS, Pavia, Italy.
Journal:J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017 Jan;26(1):7-18. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.08.022. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

32:Gender differences in management and clinical outcomes of atrial fibrillation patients.
Authors:Kassim NA, Althouse AD, Qin D, Leef G, Saba S
Institution:Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address: sabas@upmc.edu.
Journal:J Cardiol. 2017 Jan;69(1):195-200. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2016.02.022. Epub 2016 Jun 1.

33:Comparative study of hemorrhagic and ischemic complications among anticoagulants in patients undergoing cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation.
Authors:Okishige K, Nakamura T, Aoyagi H, Kawaguchi N, Yamashita M, Kurabayashi M, Suzuki H, Asano M, Shimura T, Yamauchi Y, Sasano T, Hirao K
Institution:Heart Center, Yokohama-city Bay Red Cross Hospital, Yokohama City, Japan. Electronic address: okishige@yo.rim.or.jp.
Journal:J Cardiol. 2017 Jan;69(1):11-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2016.04.009. Epub 2016 May 7.

34:Evaluation of safety and efficacy of periprocedural use of rivaroxaban and apixaban in catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation.
Authors:Yoshimura A, Iriki Y, Ichiki H, Oketani N, Okui H, Maenosono R, Namino F, Miyata M, Ohishi M
Institution:Department of Cardiovascular Medicine and Hypertension, Research Field in Medicine and Health Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. Medicine and Health Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. Medicine and Health Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. Medicine and Health Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. Electronic address: oketani@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp. Medicine and Health Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. Kagoshima, Japan. Kagoshima, Japan. Medicine and Health Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan. Medicine and Health Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.
Journal:J Cardiol. 2017 Jan;69(1):228-235. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2016.03.014. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

35:Practical Considerations for the Use of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.
Authors:Stacy Z, Richter S
Institution:St Louis College of Pharmacy, St Louis, MO, USA zachary.stacy@stlcop.edu.
Journal:Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2017 Jan;23(1):5-19. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

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E.B.
Seaford, East Sussex


"I found the MediFocus Guidebook on Atrial Fibrillation extremely informative and very easy to understand. As a result of the information in the Guidebook, I'm able to discuss my problem with my doctor in a more informed manner and make better decisions regarding treatment."
J.T.F.
Agoura Hills, California


"The Medifocus Guidebook on Atrial Fibrillation gave me far more information than was available from my doctor and helped me understand my condition."
C.B.
Rancho Santa Fe, California



  
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